Human trafficking, wildlife trafficking, and forestry crime which are the types of cross-over crimes performed by groups of criminals in different jurisdictions to make bigger financial benefits.
Types of Cross-Over Crimes
There are different cross-over crimes performed by criminals to make a financial gain. These cross-over crimes are discussed as follows:
Human trafficking is an illegal activity that usually involves using poor or deprived people for illegal or criminal activities. Human traffickers target people who are poor, isolated, and weak. Disempowerment, social exclusion, and economic vulnerability result from policies and practices that marginalize entire groups of people and make them particularly vulnerable to being trafficked.
Natural disasters, conflict, and political turmoil weaken tenuous social protection measures. However, individuals are vulnerable to being trafficked not only because of conditions in their countries of origin. The relentless demand for inexpensive goods and services and the expectation of reliable income drive people into potentially dangerous situations where they are at risk of exploitation.
The human and social consequences of trafficking are compelling. They include physical abuse and torture of victims to the psychological and emotional trauma and economic and political implications of unabated crime. The impact on individuals and society is destructive and unacceptable.
The impact of human trafficking is high on the lives of individuals and their communities. Such impacts include violence, adverse health effects, social stigmatization, and re-victimization risk.
Combating wildlife and forest crime has not usually been prioritized when addressing organized crime. Legislation may be weak, and the level of detecting and addressing wildlife crime may be very low because of limited law enforcement capacity.
Criminals tend to exploit legislative and enforcement gaps in countries that are less capable of addressing them, resulting in wildlife crime being displaced to these countries. For example, pangolin scale traders choose to store their stock in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as opposed to other source countries due to a perception of lesser capacity for interdiction.
Organized crime groups are flexible and can easily adapt to new restrictions, regulations, and enforcement measures that may reduce opportunities to maximize profits. There may be many factors that make wildlife markets vulnerable to criminal infiltration. Policies, capacities, and regulatory frameworks differ between countries, prompting criminals to turn to places where they can operate efficiently with a low risk of punishment.
Illicit wildlife markets are like other illicit markets. Strong regulations and high demand increase product prices, increasing criminal profits. When efforts to curb the illicit trade do not impact both supply and demand, different types of replacement effects can be seen. Strong regulations in one place combined with high levels of demand can shift the criminal operations to less-regulated places or the use of substitute species.
Forestry crime is the illegal exploitation of high-value endangered wood species. It includes illegal logging in protected areas, on indigenous lands or outside concession boundaries, and laundering illegally harvested wood through plantation and agricultural front companies.
Forestry crimes also involve fraudulent documentation and misdeclarations to hide illegal activity and tax evasion. Forestry law enforcement is far from what is intended and expected. Despite compelling data and evidence showing that illegal logging is a worldwide epidemic, most forest crimes go undetected or unreported. Illegal logging cases in Papua province are important and interesting to be studied from a criminological perspective.
Cross-over crime leads to greater financial losses. Criminals may commit financial and cross-border crimes in multiple jurisdictions to reap significantly greater financial rewards. Human trafficking, wildlife trafficking, and forestry crime are examples of cross-over crimes.